Steel has a dominant position among other engineering materials due to the abundance and the easiness of achieving a variety of properties with different treatments, low cost, and recycling possibilities. Today’s modern engineering tends to develop new innovative materials that will have superior properties at a reasonable cost when compared to conventional steel. The development of advanced characterization methods on a small measuring scale, as well as computational material design, has increased the possibilities and interest in implementing nanotechnology in steel. Steel's microstructure can be manipulated at the nanometer scale, resulting in significant advancement in properties. Nevertheless, there are still many challenges to overcome, such as manufacturing large components of bulk nanocrystalline steel, and nanostructured steels have high strength and low ductility, making them difficult for certain applications and thus commercialization. This paper provides a review of the new emerging nanoengineered steels, with discussions on properties and potential applications. The era of nanoengineered steel has only recently begun, and its adoption is expected to accelerate in the coming years as new research findings demonstrate significant benefits.
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