1. Fatima Živić, Fakultet inženjerskih nauka Univerziteta u Kragujevcu, Serbia
2. Dragan Adamović, Faculty of Engineering University of Kragujevac, Serbia
3. Branko Ristić, Univerzitet u Kragujevcu, Fakultet medicinskih nauka, Svetozara Markovića 69, Serbia
4. Nenad Grujović, Fakultet inženjerskih nauka Univerziteta u Kragujevcu, Serbia
Clinically applied biomaterials in orthopedics, are used for replacement of damaged bone tissues (partial and total hip/knee/arm prosthesis), for joining of broken bones (pins, plates) until they heal, and as bone grafts for structural support (spine fixtures, disks). There are several obligatory demands that such materials must fulfill: biocompatibility, non-toxicity, high corrosion resistance, durability and stability over longer time within harsh biological environment, good mechanical strength and ductility, with low modulus of elasticity comparable to that of the relevant bone tissue.
First standard artificial implants in orthopedic surgery were made of metal alloys, along with development of broad spectrum of advanced materials, today also ceramics, polymers and composites are used. New directions in material development are aimed at porous biomaterials, degradable and smart materials that should provide complete functional application of implants in very long time and completely resembling living bone tissue. Ultimate goal of material development in this area is to provide complete analogy to the real living tissue, with functional response in time and self-healing property within the body. In orthopedics – reconstructive surgery, very important demand is to provide adequate biomechanical properties comparable to those of the relevant tissue, which is still far from satisfying in case of clinically applied biomaterials today.
This paper presents the review of biomaterials in clinical practice in orthopedics, which serves as the support or replacements of bone tissue, from aspects of their properties and benefits in specific clinical cases. Relevant limitations and further research directions are also given.
SIMPOZIJUM B - Biomaterijali i nanomedicina