3D printing is an additive technology, during which the three-dimensional objects are produced by successive application of the material layers. 3D printing is the most advanced form of 3D printing, during which living cells and tissues used as print media. 3D printing and 3D bio-printing are at the moment the most attractive technological innovations in various fields of industrial production. Their application has great technological and economic significance. 3D printing, and in particular 3D bio-printing, offers the ability to design new food products with improved nutritional value and better sensory properties. The benefits of applying new technology are seen in the expansion of product assortments, meeting the requirements of personalized food, simplifying the production process, shortening the supply chain. Currently, 3D printing is used in the production of food for the military, space food, food for the elderly and sweets.
The aim of this review is the analysis of published works related to the 3D printing technique, the impact on food design and technical issues that can be bottlenecks. This paper provides an overview of several techniques that can be used for this purpose: printing methods by extrusion of liquid materials, powders or hydrogels, inject or laser-based methods, printing methods, and others. Before applying 3D printing in industrial food production and cooking, it is necessary to conduct new research on the impact of 3D printing parameters on the quality and product structure.