1. Branislav Cvjetković, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka,
Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2. Milan Mataruga, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
3. Dalibor Ballian, Forestry Faculty, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina , Bosnia and Herzegovina
4. Vanja Daničić, Faculty of Forestry, University of Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina
5. Rifet Terzić, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, University of Tuzla ::, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina , Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of the 36 "hot spots" of biodiversity in the world. Although the total country area is small, due to the specific geographical position where the Mediterranean, Alpine and Central European climate are present, the influence of specific climate conditions reflects on diversity of environmental conditions (the diversity of geological, hydrological, pedological and climatic characteristics), B&H is an area of exceptional gene, special and ecosystem diversity.
The richness of diversity is reflected in a large number of plant species in the region (about 4,500 higher plants, 600 taxa of moss and about 80 ferns, about 250 indigenous species of forest trees and shrubs. The diversity of BiH species is characterized by the highest degree of endemicity in Europe. That the Balkan Mountains have much more enedemic species than the other Mediterranean mountains in Europe, but less phylogenetic research compared to other mountains. Genetic characterization has been investigated for a high number of the most important forest species, where a high level of variability has been determined. Forest genetic resources are exposed to the effects of climate change through increasing average monthly and annual temperatures and redistribution of precipitation during the year, and through various negative human activities, and the final result in irreversible loss of forests biodiversity. In these conditions it is necessary to protect forest genetic resources.
Past activities to preserve forest genetic resources in B&H can be divided into two basic groups: in situ and ex situ conservation. The most commonly type of in-situ conservation in BiH are seed objects, in total 209 of which: 124 are seeds stands, 32 are individual trees, 52 are groups of trees and 1 seed zone. Significant in-situ conservation types are also protected areas, two areas of nature reserves, two virgin forests and three national parks. Areas of protected areas are below the European average, and by 2018 they should amount to about 10%. It is often a conflict of economic and ecological interests. Potential new areas that could be considered as protective are those that are unfit for forest management in an economic sense. In B&H, besides in-situ cosmetics, different types of ex situ conservation of forest genetic resources are applied, of which the most important are established seed plantations (4), provenance tests (6) and progeny test (1). BiH is a signatory of many important international documents that regulate the issue of preserving the forest genetic resources in terms of climate change. Laws in BiH are supported by international documents, but due to the lack of funding and the complexity of the bureaucratic apparatus, the implementation of the signed conventions and other documents in BiH is lagging behind in the countries in the region.
Republic of Srpska (as a one of two entities in BiH) has a Program of Forest Genetic Resources as a Strategy for FGR for a period until 2025, adopted by the Government of Republic of Srpska.
Šumarska genetika, sjemenarstvo, rasadničarstvo i osnivanje šuma